Friday, November 27, 2009

Saturday, November 21, 2009

It's not just one day.

Remembering our trans sisters and brothers who have been killed is not something that should only happen one day a year. It's something we should do every time we hear about a person being dehumanized, degendered, assaulted, or harassed because s/he is trans. Because every 'it' or 'tranny' joke, every 'she's REALLY a he', contributes to a culture where trans people are abused and killed in obscene numbers.

I hope you take some time to remember.

RIP.

Tuesday, November 17, 2009

Saturday, November 14, 2009

Sources for the paper I'm working on

Aarsland, D., Alves, G., & Larsen, J. P. (2005). Disorders of motivation, sexual conduct, and sleep in Parkinson's disease. In W. J. Weiner, K. E. Anderson & A. E. Lang (Eds.), Behavioral neurology of movement disorders (pp. 56-64). Philadelphia: Raven Press.

Baddeley, A. (1998). Working memory. C R Acad Sci III, 321(2-3), 167-173.

Banich, M. T. (2004). Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Braver, T. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2000). On the control of control: The role of dopamine in regulating prefrontal function and working memory. In S. Monsell & J. Driver (Eds.), Control of cognitive processes : attention and performance XVIII (pp. 511-534, 713-738). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Burns, R. S., Chiueh, C. C., Markey, S. P., Ebert, M. H., Jacobowitz, D. M., & Kopin, I. J. (1983). A primate model of parkinsonism: selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 80(14), 4546-4550.

Chiodo, L. A., Antelman, S. M., Caggiula, A. R., & Lineberry, C. G. (1980). Sensory stimuli alter the discharge rate of dopamine (DA) neurons: evidence for two functional types of DA cells in the substantia nigra. Brain Res, 189(2), 544-549.

Cohen, J. D., Braver, T. S., & Brown, J. W. (2002). Computational perspectives on dopamine function in prefrontal cortex. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 12(2), 223-229. doi: S0959438802003148 [pii]

Damier, P., Hirsch, E. C., Agid, Y., & Graybiel, A. M. (1999). The substantia nigra of the human brain. II. Patterns of loss of dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease. Brain, 122 ( Pt 8), 1437-1448.

Duzel, E., Bunzeck, N., Guitart-Masip, M., Wittmann, B., Schott, B. H., & Tobler, P. N. (2009). Functional imaging of the human dopaminergic midbrain. Trends Neurosci, 32(6), 321-328. doi: S0166-2236(09)00075-7 [pii]
10.1016/j.tins.2009.02.005

Gold, J. I., & Shadlen, M. N. (2007). The Neural Basis of Decision Making. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 30, 535-574.
Hollerman, J. R., & Schultz, W. (1998). Dopamine neurons report an error in the temporal prediction of reward during learning. Nat Neurosci, 1(4), 304-309. doi: 10.1038/1124

Kobayashi, S., & Schultz, W. (2008). Influence of reward delays on responses of dopamine neurons. J Neurosci, 28(31), 7837-7846. doi: 28/31/7837 [pii]
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1600-08.2008

Laviolette, S. R., Lauzon, N. M., Bishop, S. F., Sun, N., & Tan, H. (2008). Dopamine signaling through D1-like versus D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens core versus shell differentially modulates nicotine reward sensitivity. J Neurosci, 28(32), 8025-8033. doi: 28/32/8025 [pii]
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1371-08.2008

Lee, H. J., Youn, J. M., O, M. J., Gallagher, M., & Holland, P. C. (2006). Role of substantia nigra-amygdala connections in surprise-induced enhancement of attention. J Neurosci, 26(22), 6077-6081. doi: 26/22/6077 [pii]
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1316-06.2006

Matsumoto, M., & Hikosaka, O. (2009). Two types of dopamine neuron distinctly convey positive and negative motivational signals. Nature, 459(7248), 837-841. doi: nature08028 [pii]
10.1038/nature08028

O'Brien, J. (2009, 10/23/2009). [Motivation and visual selective attention].

Ploran, E. J., Nelson, S. M., Velanova, K., Donaldson, D. I., Peterson, S. E., & Wheeler, M. E. (2007). Evidence Accumulation and the Moment of Recognition: Dissociating Perceptual Recognition Processes Using fMRI. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(44), 11912–11924.

Salamone, J. D., & Correa, M. (2002). Motivational views of reinforcement: implications for understanding the behavioral functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine. Behavioural Brain Research, 137(1), 3-25.

Sanfey, A. G., Loewenstein, G., McClure, S. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2006). Neuroeconomics: cross-currents in research on decision-making. Trends Cogn Sci, 10(3), 108-116. doi: S1364-6613(06)00027-1 [pii]
10.1016/j.tics.2006.01.009

Schultz, W., Dayan, P., & Montague, P. R. (1997). A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science, 275(5306), 1593-1599.

Sugrue, L. P., Corrado, G. S., & Newsome, W. T. (2005). Choosing the greater of two goods: neural currencies for valuation and decision making. Nat Rev Neurosci, 6(5), 363-375. doi: nrn1666 [pii]
10.1038/nrn1666

Waelti, P., Dickinson, A., & Schultz, W. (2001). Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory. Nature, 412(6842), 43-48. doi: 10.1038/35083500
35083500 [pii]

P.S.: Endnote is awesome.

Thursday, November 12, 2009

The AMA, the FDA, marijuana, Marinol, Sativex, and Barack Hussein Obama

The AMA has recommended a change in the classification of marijuana to facilitate medical research on it!

I am actually presenting on this in class:


As part of my presentation, I'll be talking about how the FDA has denied the scientific evidence for the efficacy of marijuana for medical purposes... but at the same time the FDA has approved Marinol, which is delta-9 THC but not plant-derived, for distribution; and the FDA has approved Sativex, which is a mix of plant-derived cannabinoids, for Phase III trials!

So, there's evidence enough to support cannabinoids' safety and efficacy for medical purposes to sell pot to us as a prescription drug, at a premium price, but obviously not enough evidence to lower the Schedule of the whole plant product. Uh-huh.

I'll finish up with a word from our President:

Monday, November 2, 2009

Why you suck at things when you're sleep deprived.

According to some new research by Todd Maddox at U of Texas, sleep deprivation makes the thinky part of your brain, the frontal cortex, get all sucky.

Yeah, we all knew that, right? But what we didn't know is that it doesn't really affect the instinct-y part of your brain, the striatum. Which is why, for example, you're still OK at doing routine tasks (take out the milk, take out the cereal, take out the bowl, put food in face), but sometimes you'll muck up and do something wrong, but do it in the right way (put the milk away in the pantry, put the cereal away in the fridge).

And when you're really sleep deprived, you'll start consciously over-thinking things, which leans on the frontal cortex, which as you'll recall is all wonky from the sleep-dep, so you'll muck things up even more.

I will try to keep this in mind during grad school, and do everything by instinct. :)